All the socialist press was gagged during the reaction interval, which lasted totally twenty years. Nevertheless, even anarchist thought began to make some progress, particularly within the writings of Bellegarrique (Caeurderoy), and especially Joseph Déjacque (Les Lazareacute’ennes, L ‘Humanisphère, an anarchist-communist utopia, recently found and reprinted). The socialist movement revived only after 1864, when some French working males, all ‘mutualists’, assembly in London during the Universal Exhibition with English followers of Robert Owen, based the International Working Men’s Association. This affiliation developed very quickly and adopted a policy of direct economical struggle against capitalism, without interfering in the political parliamentary agitation, and this policy was adopted until 1871. This quickly led to a division in the Working Men’s Association, and the Latin federations, Spanish, Italian, Belgian and Jurassic (France couldn’t be represented), constituted amongst themselves a Federal union which broke completely with the Marxist common council of the International.
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