Definition and Type of Political Culture
Political culture is one of the important cultural elements in the nation-building agenda. The political power of a nation can be reflected in how strong the political culture is in the souls of its citizens. Without a political culture, a nation or state will have a weak stance. As a result, it is easy to fall prey to the political ideology of other nations. Political culture is often seen as a set of knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and assessments of citizens of their country’s political system and awareness of their role in the political life of their country. Political culture can be positioned as a support for the country’s political system.
Understanding political culture
Political culture or political culture can be at the individual as well as the communal level. Political culture directs the role of individuals or groups to think, act, and contribute to the formation or strengthening of the political system prevailing in their country.
Some examples of types of political culture
Based on the orientation of citizens towards the political system of their country, political culture can be classified into three types, namely as follows
• Parochial political culture
• Political culture of the subject
• Participatory political culture
Parochial political culture
This type of political culture is limited to political systems in a relatively small geographic scope. The scale is local or narrower than that. Citizens in a parochial political culture tend not to care about broad political objects or issues. The characteristics of this type of political culture are
• This political culture lives in a society that is still traditional with a communal lifestyle.
• Political activities are mixed with other activities, such as economics or religion.
• Public awareness of central or regional politics tends to below.
• People are more interested in discussing politics within the boundaries of where they live.
• Citizens do not expect much from the central or regional political leaders to change their fate.
The political culture of the subject
This type of political culture can be described by the passive attitude of its citizens to the ruling government. Citizens can be said to be obedient but do not actively involve themselves in participating in development. The characteristics of this type of political culture are as follows:
• Citizens are fully aware of the government’s authority.
• The majority of citizens are passive, not giving advice or demands to the government because they feel quite satisfied.
• Citizens have an attitude of accepting political decisions made by the government, both central and regional.
• Many citizens consider it inappropriate to oppose the orders of political leaders.
• Citizens are unwilling or unable to participate in political life.
• Citizens tend to be more interested in the results of political policies that can be felt directly, rather than participating in formulating these policies.
Participant political culture
This type of political culture shows the active and participatory role of citizens in the country’s politics as a whole. Public awareness of the highest political decisions that affect their household is so high. Therefore, people with a participant political culture are heavily involved, either providing input or complaining to the government. The characteristics of this political culture are as follows:
• Citizens are aware of their political rights and obligations as citizens.
• Citizens do not just accept the conditions they experience because they are the object of political policy.
• Citizens participate actively in electing their leaders on a national scale.
• Citizens always monitor what their political leaders are doing.
• Citizens consciously provide support or demands for political policies made by the government.
However, it needs to be underlined that Indonesia’s political culture is still being pushed towards a participatory direction. However, the ideal democracy demands high citizen participation in political life.